|CHORTKIV: Ternopil oblast (Czortków, Chortkov, Tschortkiw, Czortków, Czortków Stary, Chertkov, Chortkuv, Chortkev, Czortkiw, Vygnanka)|
Alternate names: Chortkiv-Чортків [Ukr], Chortkov-Чортков [Rus], Czortków [Pol], Tschortkiw [Ger], Czortków Stary, Chertkov, Chortkuv, Chortkev, Czortkiw. 49°01' N, 25°48' E, 49 miles E of Ivano-Frankivsk, 38 miles SSE of Ternopil (Tarnopol). Jewish population: 2,214 (in 1880), 3,314 (in 1921).
"hospital ... dug up an ancient Jewish cemetery that lies adjacent to it in order to use it as a garden." Source. [September 2009]
Russian source with photos: "The first written mention of Chortkivis 1427. Chartkovitse Terebovlia countyin Polish kingdom as property Ya Pradonticha , son Pradonty Kopitsenskogo (Kopichinskogo). In 1522 owned by George (Jerzy) Chartkovskogo, who built a wooden castle. In 1533, King Sigismund III I. Chartkovskomu allowed to convert.In 1560 Chortkov received confirmation of Magdeburg rights and city coat of arms. At this time in the city, Jews apparently settled. In 1604 the owner Chortkiv S. Golsky had the privilege to hold 2 fairs and auction on Sunday. In 1610 he began to build a stone castle. Subsequently Chortkov was property of Potocki, from the end of 18th century to Sadovsky, who passed it to the Austrian government. In 1616 ia Jewish community had the old Jewish cemetery whose surviving Matsevot date this year. In the mid-17th century. Chortkiv Jews than once suffered from the Polish - Cossack Wars. In 1645 Poles suspected Jews of cooperation with the Cossacks, vandalized and expelled the Jews from the city to the suburbs, which from that time was called "Vygnanka" that subsequently became one of the Jewish neighborhoods of Chortkiv. The Cossacks did not favor Jews. In autumn 1655, Cossack regiments seized Chortkov and captured the governor Bratslavskogo P. Potocki.The Jewish population suffered In 1672-1683 under Turkish rule, the castle-residence of the Turkish subpashi Chortkiv nahii Podolsky pashalika. Under the terms of Charles Congress (1698-1699) January 16, 1699 Chortkov Rzeczpospolita passed . In 1705 Jews began to settle in urban areas. In 1722, Stefan Potocki gave them the right to settle in the city. Visiting here in 1725, Rabbi Zvi Hirsh Halevi Horowitz (Rabbi Zvi Hisrsh Halevi Horowitz), known as Rabbi Girshel (Rabbi Hirsheli) - Gaon of Podolia, largely contributed to the resumption of Chortkiv Kahal and Hasid dynasty. They built a bet midrash. In 1754, construction of the synagogue from money Racha gave to Rabbi Myer Katz (Rabbi Meir Katz). In the same year Franco supporters psevdomessianskoy heresy [sic] appeared. At this time, the Jewish community evolved and grew rich. Patrons allocated large scrip money to communities.They formed an association of merchants, Jewish sewing workshop. In 1772, 110 houses belonged to Jews, 69 of them in the marketplace. 35 shops in the market property to Jews. Of 142 houses owned by Christians, only 4 were on the market. On the outskirts: Vygnanke had 36 Jewish houses out of 81. 1772 to 1920 Chortkov belonged to Austria (except for 1809-1815, when part of Russia). .As elsewhere in the empire, Austrian authorities tried to assimilate Jews, but it failed. By 1797 Chortkiv has 121 home with Jews. After revolution of 1848, liberalization occurred. The Jews were granted equal rights with other subjects of the empire. Chortkiv, as elsewhere in Jewish towns, had a struggle between mitnagdimami, Hasidim and adherents of the Jewish Enlightenment-Haskalah. Subsequently, Zionists appeared in the city as did supporters of assimilation, socialists and communists. In 1880 Chortkiv had a brick factory and an oil mill, mill, factories for farm implements, rum and liqueurs. In 1897, Chortkov got the railroad Ternopil-Stanislaviv (now Ivano-Frankivsk). The first group of Hasidim emigrated to Palestine before the WWI. During the WWI from August 1914 to July 1917 were in Russian troops. As a result of the Civil War, the city was part of Poland until 1939. At this time mass emigration of Jews in America occurred. In 1931 of 19 000 inhabitants Chortkiv Jews constituted 30% and before World War II in 3,314. 6 July 1941 during the German offensive, Chortkov was part of the Wehrmacht. After that, with the assistance of local collaborators Germans vandalized and killed 300 Jews. In March 1942, a ghetto was established, where all the Jews resettled - 6,800 people. Since the summer of 1942 to November 1943 were mass extermination of Jews. Two groups of Jews led by Rosenberg and Reuven Meir Wasserman fled into the forest and killed in an armed struggle against the Nazis. Before liberation by the Red Army March 23, 1944 about 100 Jews survived. Detailed photos.
CHORTKOV I: US Commission No. UA19120101
The earliest known Jewish community was 16th century. 1939 Jewish population (census) was 3314. Effecting the Jewish Community were mid-19th century strife of Hasids with Haskalah and 1907 election to reyshrat [sic] of local Zionist Maler. Living here were Rabbi David-Moisey Fridman and Karl-Emil Frantsoz, ethnograf. The Jewish cemetery dates from the 17th century. Buried in the cemetery are rabbi David-Moisey Fridman and his relatives. The last known Sadgoskaya Hasidic burial was begining 20th century. No other towns or villages used this unlandmarked cemetery. The isolated urban hillside has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all. A continuous fence with no gate surrounds the cemetery. 1 to 20 stones, all in original location with none toppled or broken, date from 1990. Locations of any removed stones are unknown. Some tombstones have metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains no known mass graves. The municipality owns property now used for recreation (park, playground, and sports). Properties adjacent are hospital. The cemetery boundaries are smaller now than 1939 because of hospital. Occasionally, organized Jewish group tours or pilgrimage groups and local residents visit. The cemetery was vandalized during World War II and not in the last ten years. Jewish groups within country did re-erection of stones in 1990. Now, occasionally, authorities clear or clean. Serious threat: existing nearby development (Possible construction of thrift [sic] building.) Moderate threat: uncontrolled access, vegetation, vandalism and proposed nearby development. Slight threat: weather erosion and pollution.
Hodorkovskiy Yuriy Isaakovich of Kiev, Vozduhoflotskiy Prosp. 37A, apt.23 [Phone: (044)2769505] visited site on 17/04/1996. Interviewed on 17/04/1996 was Chorpita Y.I. of Zelenaya St. 3, Local History Museum. Hodorkovskiy completed survey in /04/1996.
CHORTKOV II: US Commission No. UA19120102
The cemetery is located S, 200 m from bridge, River Seret. The last known Sadgoskaya Hasidic burial was 1940. No other towns or villages used this unlandmarked cemetery. The isolated suburban crown of a hill has signs or plaques in local language and in Hebrew mentioning Jews. Reached near Pervomayskaya St., access is open to all. A continuous fence with non-locking gate surrounds the cemetery. 101 to 500 stones, most in original location with 50%-75% toppled or broken, date from 20th century. Locations of any removed stones are unknown. Some tombstones have traces of painting on their surfaces. The cemetery contains no known mass graves. The municipality owns property now used for agriculture (crops or animal grazing). Properties adjacent are residential and forest. The cemetery boundaries are unchanged since 1939. Occasionally, organized Jewish group tours or pilgrimage groups and Jewish or non-Jewish private visitors stop. The cemetery was vandalized during World War II and not in the last ten years. Local/municipal authorities and Jewish groups within country cleared vegetation, fixed wall and fixed gate in 1994. Now, occasionally, authorities clear or clean. Within the limits of the cemetery are no structures. Vegetation overgrowth is a seasonal problem, preventing access. Moderate threat: uncontrolled access, weather erosion and vandalism. Slight threat: pollution, vegetation, existing and proposed nearby development.
Hodorkovskiy Yuriy Isaakovich of Kiev, Vozduhoflotskiy Prosp. 37A, apt.23 [Phone: (044) 2769505] visited site on 17/04/1996. Interviewed on 17/04/1996 was Chorpila Y.I. of Zelenaya St. 3. Hodorkovskiy completed survey in /04/1996.
CHORTKOV III: US Commission No. UA19120103
The cemetery is located at Mitskyevicha St. The last known Progressive/Reform Jewish burial was 1940. No other towns or villages used this unlandmarked cemetery. The suburban hillside, separate but near other cemeteries, has inscriptions in Hebrew on gate or wall. Reached by Mitskevicha Str, behind Christian cemetery, access is open to all. Avuslove continuous masonry wall with non-locking gate surrounds the cemetery. 21 to 100 common tombstones, few in original location with 50%-75% toppled or broken, date from 20th century. Locations of any removed stones are unknown. The cemetery contains no known mass graves. The municipality owns property now used for waste dumping. Properties adjacent are residential. The cemetery boundaries are unchanged since 1939. Rarely, local residents visit. The cemetery was vandalized during World War II and occasionally in the last ten years. There is no maintenance. Within the limits of the cemetery are no structures. Christian cemetery waste is dumped on Jewish cemetery. Vegetation overgrowth is a constant problem, damaging stones. Water drainage is a seasonal problem. Very serious threat: pollution and vegetation (Big vegetation destroys graves). Moderate threat: uncontrolled access, weather erosion, vandalism and existing nearby development. Slight threat: proposed nearby development.
Hodorkovskiy Yuriy Isaakovich of Kiev, Vozduhoflotskiy Prosp. 37A, apt.23 [Phone: (044) 2769505] visited site on 17/04/1996. No interviews were conducted. Hodorkovskiy completed survey on /04/1996.
Photos by Charles Burns [February 2016]
|Last Updated on Tuesday, 02 February 2016 05:21|